Carts and Wagons

Szerző: 2014. december 23.

The permanent exhibition is situated in the Kisalföld regional unit, which is visible from far because of the wagons on the top of the barn. It displays the vehicle developed in Hungary, the cart named after the village of Kocs which is placed in Komárom-Esztergom County.



What is the cart?
The cart, developed in Kocs with a fast spread appeared in the Hungarian vehicle culture with precedents. The oldest stratum of the Hungarian wagon terminology is rooted in times preceding the Settlement and linguistic research verifies Turkish, Mongol and Irani cultural relations. This vocabulary proves that every indispensable part of the wagon was the two-wheeled cart. It was used by the nomads in Middle Asia and it was the most wide-spread traffic and cargo-carrying tool in the regions along the Mediterranean Sea in Europe from ancient times till today. Archaelogical excavations in the last few decades have explored the early types of the vehicles along the route of the Hungarian wanderings. The former assumption that Hungarians preceding the Settlement called the for-wheeled vehicle 'cart' is faulty. Wagons as well as carts were in use in Hungary in the 11-13th century. The dominant vehicles in the Middle Ages were the four-wheeled rather thane the two-wheeled carts.


What is the difference between carts and wagons?
The wagons in the Middle Ages were not used for transporting people; according to sources only women, priests and princes were privileged and exceptional. The wagon was simply a raw wood closet built on two axles.



What can we know about the typical 'Hungarian cart'?
One of the features of the cart is the curved side that is a typical part of the 'Hungarian cart'. We do not know the precise spread of the curved side lower in the middle but there are sporadic data about the cart, most likely used as a mail cart between Buda and Vienna at the initiation if King Mátyás. The admiration and appreciation of the foreigners travelling long journeys, contributed to the fact that the word kocsi became one of the onternational words originating from Hungarian. It is the root of the English coach, the French coche, the German Kutsche, the Spanish coche, the Italian coccio, the Swedish kusk, the Slovakian koč, the Croatian kocis, the Polish koczi and the Czech koczy.

 

How about the carriage?
The carriage wagon has been developed also in Hungary at the same time as the cart and the wagon. The carriage is a Hungarian development, shortened from carriage wagon. Its first appearance is known from 1500. According to its original meaning, it denoted a suspended, swaying cart closet. It is proved by Verancsics Faustus' Machinae novae in 1616 in wich he suggested the increase of the comfort of the cart by introducing iron springs.

Sponsored by: Nemzeti Kulturális Alap
Curator: dr. Lajos Kemecsi

Visit the exhibition in the Kisalföld regional unit of the permanent exhibition.

carts wagons exhibition


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